Circular economy and functionality
Until the end of the 20th century, economic development, which was mainly driven by technical innovations and the globalisation of markets, gave rise to globalised production chains mobilising a multitude of subsidiaries, subcontractors and suppliers around dominant companies to which they are linked by relationships of allegiance. These chains of production remain essentially "linear": they draw raw materials and energy from an infinite biosphere and reject waste, from the by-products of production to end-of-life objects, which are being replaced more and more rapidly in a logic of programmed obsolescence. This model is obviously not sustainable. It has elicited a great many reactions, with the territories in the front line. Let’s quote :
- the industrial and territorial ecology, which aims to turn the by-products of a productive activity into the raw material for other activities or services rendered to the community;
- the circular economy, which aims to move from linear production chains to loop systems where the genesis and use of a product is taken into account to ensure that all the resources needed are recycled or reused;
- the territorialized management of waste which aims firstly to reduce its mass (through industrial and territorial ecology, through the circular economy, through the development of bulk and deposit, etc.) and secondly to design its recycling ;
- the economy of functionality, which aims to offer a service rendered rather than the purchase of material goods enabling this service to be rendered.
The territories are a privileged level for organising these transformations, but policies at national and European level must be implemented to generalise them.
See the documents :